Psychology is officially a young discipline, but the traces of Psychology are found in ancient history. Ancient Indians have developed the psychological concept through Upanishads, Puranas, and other mythological books. The position of psychology has changed after World War II and the dominance of particular culture has been observed over another. As times changes, psychological perspectives also changed.
Let’s discuss some of the Modern perspectives of the Psychology.
The focus of the Psychodynamic Perspective includes the unconscious mind and its influence on conscious behavior, and on early childhood experiences. It has less emphasis on sex and sexual motivation and more emphasis on self, social and interpersonal relationship and the discovery of other motivations behind the person’s behavior.
B.F. Skinner is the new leader of this perspective after John B. Watson moved to the advertisement. Skinner along with classical conditioning, he developed a new theory called Operant conditioning. Through this new conditioning, he explained how behavior is learned.
This theory explains behavioral responses which are followed by pleasurable consequences are strengthened or reinforced.
They talk about people’s ability to direct their own lives. Therefore, Humanists have views that people have free will, the freedom to choose their own destiny and strive for self-actualization; hence the achievement of one’s full potential.
Psychotherapy aimed at self-understanding and self-improvement
Cognitive psychology mainly focuses on how people think, remember, use and store information. The major forces in psychology with the help of the Cognitive Perspective include memory, intelligence, perception, thought processes, problem-solving, language, and learning.
The physical working of the brain and nervous system while engaged in memory, thinking and other cognitive processes, comes under cognitive neuroscience. MRI, fMRI, and PET are the tools used to study them.
This is the combination of two areas of study social psychology and cultural psychology. Social psychology consists of the study of groups, social roles, and roles of social actions and relationship, Whereas, Cultural psychology consists of the study of cultural norms, values, and expectations.
Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky used this perspective to develop a sociocultural theory of cognitive development of the children.
The sociocultural perspective is very important as it reminds people that the way they and others behave is influenced by the way they are alone, with friends, a part of the crowd or group, social norms, fads, class differences, and ethnic identity concerns of the particular culture in which they live.
Cross cultures research helps us in studying the contrasts and comparison of behavior or issues among two or more cultures.
Social psychology researchers, Dr. John Darley and Dr. Bibb Latane found that with their research. the presence of other people actually lessened the chances that the person in trouble would receive help. This phenomenon is called the bystander effect and it generally happens due to diffusion of responsibility. This diffusion of responsibility creates the sense in each available person that the action will be taken by the next available person.
This is the study of biological bases of behavior and mental processes. Bio-Psychological Perspective has many names- Physiological Psychology, Biological Psychology, Psychobiology and Behavioural Neuroscience. Cognitive Neuroscience often overlaps with this Bio-Psychological Perspective.
In this perspective, human and animal behavior has the direct result from the events/changes in the body. Some of the biological causes of behavior and mental events are Hormones, Heredity, Brain chemicals, and Tumors.
Sleep, Emotions, Aggression, Sexual behavior, Learning, Memory and some disorders are the topic of research for the biopsychologists. A disorder may have multiple causes like family issues, stress, etc, but in this perspective, it’s clear to look into biological factors of the disorder.
Why do we lie?
How attractiveness influences mate selection?
Why is the fear of snake very common among people?
Why people universally like music and dance?
These are the some of the questions whose answers lie within the evolutionary perspective or the evolutionary psychologists strive to get their answers.
Evolutionary psychological perspective has its base in the biological phenomenon, hence, biological bases determine universal mental characteristics that all humans share. It follows the Darwinism theory of evolution, in which mind identified as the information processing machine.
Relationships between men and women are one of the many areas in which evolutionary psychologists conduct research.